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Knowledge Organization

International Journal devoted to Concept Theory, Classification, Indexing, and Knowledge Representation.
Official Journal of the International Society for Knowledge Organization
eight issues/ann.
ISSN 0943-7444

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Richard P. SMIRAGLIA (Editor-in-Chief), School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Northwest Quad Building B, 2025 E Newport St., Milwaukee, WI 53211 USA. E-mail:

Joshua HENRY, Institute for Knowledge Organization and Structure, Shorewood WI 53211 USA.

J. Bradford Young (Bibliographic Consultant), Institute for Knowledge Organization and Structure, Shorewood WI 53211, USA.

Editors Emerita

Hope A. OLSON, School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Northwest Quad Building B, 2025 E Newport St., Milwaukee, WI 53211 USA. E-mail:

Clare BEGHTOL, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto, 140 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G6, Canada. E-mail:

Editorial Board

Thomas DOUSA, The University of Chicago Libraries, 1100 E 57th St, Chicago, IL 60637 USA. E-mail:

Melodie J. FOX, Institute for Knowledge Organization and Structure, Shorewood WI 53211 USA. E-mail:

Jonathan FURNER, Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, 300 Young Dr. N, Mailbox 951520, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1520, USA. E-mail:

Claudio GNOLI, University of Pavia, Science and Technology Library, via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy. E-mail:

Rebecca GREEN, Senior Editor, Dewey Decimal Classification, Dewey Editorial Office, Library of Congress, Decimal Classification Division , 101 Independence Ave., S.E., Washington, DC 20540-4330, USA. E-mail:

José Augusto Chaves GUIMARÃES, Departamento de Ciência da Informacão, Universidade Estadual Paulista–UNESP, Av. Hygino Muzzi Filho 737, 17525-900 Marília SP Brazil. E-mail:

Birger HJØRLAND, Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen Denmark. E-mail:

Michael KLEINEBERG, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, D-10099 Berlin. E-mail:

María J. LÓPEZ-HUERTAS. Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Biblioteconomía y Documentación, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, Biblioteca del Colegio Máximo de Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain. E-mail:

Kathryn LA BARRE, The Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 501 E. Daniel Street, MC-493, Champaign, IL 61820-6211 USA. E-mail:

Devika P. MADALLI, Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Bangalore 560 059, India. E-mail:

Daniel MARTÍNEZ-ÁVILA, Departamento de Ciência da Informação, Universidade Estadual Paulista–UNESP, Av. Hygino Muzzi Filho 737, 17525-900 Marília SP Brazil. E-mail:

Widad MUSTAFA el HADI, Université Charles de Gaulle Lille 3, URF IDIST, Domaine du Pont de Bois, Villeneuve d’Ascq 59653, France. E-mail:

H. Peter OHLY, Prinzenstr. 179, D-53175 Bonn, Germany. E-mail:

K. S. RAGHAVAN, KAnOE (Centre for Knowledge Analytics & Ontological Engineering), PES Institute of Technology, 100 Feet Ring Road, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085, India. E-mail:

Heather Moulaison SANDY, The iSchool at the University of Missouri, 303 Townsend Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. E-mail:

M. P. SATIJA, Guru Nanak Dev University, School of Library and Information Science, Amritsar-143 005, India. E-mail:

Aida SLAVIC, UDC Consortium, PO Box 90407, 2509 LK The Hague, The Netherlands. E-mail:

Renato R. SOUZA, Applied Mathematics School, Getulio Vargas Foundation, Praia de Botafogo, 190, 3o andar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22250-900, Brazil. E-mail:

Rick SZOSTAK, University of Alberta, Department of Economics, 4 Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2H4. E-mail:

Joseph T. TENNIS, The Information School of the University of Washington, Box 352840, Mary Gates Hall Ste 370, Seattle WA 98195-2840 USA. E-mail:

Maja ŽUMER, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 2, Ljubljana 1000 Slovenia. E-mail:

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically (in Word format) in English only via ScholarOne at Manuscripts that do not adhere to these guidelines will be returned to the authors for resubmission in proper form.

Manuscripts should be accompanied by an indicative abstract of approximately 250 words. Manuscripts of articles should fall within the range 6,000-10,000 words. Longer manuscripts will be considered on consultation with the editor-in-chief.

A separate title page should include the article title and the author’s name, postal address, and E-mail address. Only the title of the article should appear on the first page of the text. Contact information must be present for all authors of a manuscript.

To protect anonymity, the author’s name should not appear on the manuscript.

Criteria for acceptance will be appropriateness to the field of knowledge organization (see Scope and Aims), taking into account the merit of the contents and presentation. It is expected that all successful manuscripts will be well-situated in the domain of knowledge organization, and will cite all relevant literature from within the domain. Authors are encouraged to use the KO literature database at

The manuscript should be concise and should conform to professional standards of English usage and grammar. Authors whose native language is not English are encouraged to make use of professional academic English-language proofreading services. We recommend Vulpine Academic Services (

Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not been previously published, are not being submitted for publication elsewhere, and that if the work received official sponsorship, it has been duly released for publication. Submissions are refereed, and authors will usually be notified within 6 to 8 weeks.

Under no circumstances should the author attempt to mimic the presentation of text as it appears in our published journal. Instead, please follow these instructions.

The entire manuscript should be double-spaced, including notes and references.

The text should be structured with decimally-numbered subheadings (1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1.1, etc.). It should contain an introduction, giving an overview and stating the purpose, a main body, describing in sufficient detail the materials or methods used and the results or systems developed, and a conclusion or summary.

Footnotes are not allowed. Endnotes are accepted only in rare cases and should be limited in number; all narration should be included in the text of the article. Do not use automatic footnote formatting. Instead, insert a superscript numeral (Format, Font, Superscript) and create the text of the note manually in a separate list at the end of the manuscript, before the reference list.

Paragraphs should include a topic sentence, a developed narrative and a conclusion; a typical paragraph has several sentences. Paragraphs with tweet-like characteristics (one or two sentences) are inappropriate.

Italics are permitted only for phrases from languages other than English, and for the titles of published works.

Bold type is not permitted.

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Do not use automatic formatting of any kind. To indent, use the ruler. Do not use tabs under any circumstances. For a bulleted list, indent the list using the ruler, then insert bullets (Insert, Advanced Symbol, bullet). Do not use automatically-numbered paragraphs.

Illustrations should be embedded within the document. Photographs (including color and half-tone) should be scanned with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi and saved as .jpg files. Tables should contain a number and caption at the bottom, and all columns and rows should have headings. All illustrations should be cited in the text as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. or Table 1, Table 2, etc.

Author-generated keywords are not permitted.

Reference citations within the text should have the form: (Author year). For example, (Jones 1990). Specific page numbers are required for quoted material, e.g. (Jones 1990, 100). A citation with two authors would read (Jones and Smith 1990); three or more authors would be: (Jones et al. 1990). When the author is mentioned in the text, only the date and optional page number should appear in parentheses: “According to Jones (1990), …” or “Smith wrote (2010, 146): ….” A subsequent page reference to the same cited work (e.g., to Smith 2010) should have the form “(229).” There is never a comma before the date.

In-text citations should not be routinely placed at the end of a sentence or after a quotation, but an attempt should be made to work them into the narrative. For example:

“Jones (2010, 114) reported statistically significant results.

“Many authors report similar data; according to Matthews (2014, 94): “all seven studies report means within ±5%.”

In-text citations should precede block quotations, and never are placed at the end of a block-quotation.

References should be listed alphabetically by author at the end of the article. Reference lists should not contain references to works not cited in the text. Websites mentioned in passing in the text should be identified parenthetically with their URLs but not with references unless a specific page of a specific website is being quoted.

Author names should be given as found in the sources (not abbreviated, but also not fuller than what is given in the source). Journal titles should not be abbreviated. Multiple citations to works by the same author should be listed chronologically and should each include the author’s name. Articles appearing in the same year should have the following format: “Jones 2005a, Jones 2005b, etc.”

Proceedings must be identified fully by title, editor, and details of publication.

Journal issue numbers are given only when a journal volume is not through-paginated. References for published electronic resources should be accompanied by either a URL or DOI but not in lieu of actual publication data; access dates are not allowed.

Unpublished electronic resources may use an access date in lieu of a data of publication. In cases of doubt, authors are encouraged to consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed. (or online), author-date reference system (chapter 15).


Dahlberg, Ingetraut. 1978. “A Referent-Oriented, Analytical Concept Theory for INTERCONCEPT.” International Classification 5: 142-51.

Howarth, Lynne C. 2003. “Designing a Common Namespace for Searching Metadata-Enabled Knowledge Repositories: An International Perspective.” Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 37, nos. 1/2: 173-85.

Pogorelec, Andrej and Alenka Šauperl. 2006. “The Alternative Model of Classification of Belles-Lettres in Libraries.” Knowledge Organization 33: 204-14.

Schallier, Wouter. 2004. “On the Razor’s Edge: Between Local and Overall Needs in Knowledge Organization.” In Knowledge Organization and the Global Information Society: Proceedings of the Eighth International ISKO Conference 13-16 July 2004 London, UK, edited by Ia C. McIlwaine. Advances in knowledge organization 9. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag, 269-74.

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2001. The Nature of ‘a Work’: Implications for the Organization of Knowledge. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow.

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2005. “Instantiation: Toward a Theory.” In Data, Information, and Knowledge in a Networked World; Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science … London, Ontario, June 2-4 2005, ed. Liwen Vaughan.

Upon acceptance of a manuscript for publication, authors must provide a digital photo and a one-paragraph biographical sketch (fewer than 100 words). The photograph should be scanned with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi and saved as a .jpg file.

The more scientific data is generated in the impetuous present times, the more ordering energy needs to be expended to control these data in a retrievable fashion. With the abundance of knowledge now available the questions of new solutions to the ordering problem and thus of improved classification systems, methods and procedures have acquired unforeseen significance. For many years now they have been the focus of interest of information scientists the world over.
Until recently, the special literature relevant to classification was published in piecemeal fashion, scattered over the numerous technical journals serving the experts of the various fields such as:

philosophy and science of science
science policy and science organization
mathematics, statistics and computer science
library and information science
archivistics and museology
journalism and communication science
industrial products and commodity science
terminology, lexicography and linguistics

Beginning in 1974, KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION (formerly INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION) has been serving as a common platform for the discussion of both theoretical background questions and practical application problems in many areas of concern. In each issue experts from many countries comment on questions of an adequate structuring and construction of ordering systems and on the problems of their use in opening the information contents of new literature, of data collections and survey, of tabular works and of other objects of scientific interest. Their contributions have been concerned with

(1) clarifying the theoretical foundations (general ordering theory/science, theoretical bases of classification, data analysis and reduction)
(2) describing practical operations connected with indexing/classification, as well as applications of classification systems and thesauri, manual and machine indexing
(3) tracing the history of classification knowledge and methodology
(4) discussing questions of education and training in classification
(5) concerning themselves with the problems of terminology in general and with respect to special fields.

Thus, KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION is a forum for all those interested in the organization of knowledge on a universal or a domain-specific scale, using concept-analytical or concept-synthetical approaches, as well as quantitative and qualitative methodologies. KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION also addresses the intellectual and automatic compilation and use of classification systems and thesauri in all fields of knowledge, with special attention being given to the problems of terminology.

KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION publishes original articles, reports on conferences and similar communications, as well as book reviews, letters to the editor, and an extensive annotated bibliography of recent classification and indexing literature.

KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION should therefore be available at every university and research library of every country, at every information center, at colleges and schools of library and information science, in the hands of everybody interested in the fields mentioned above and thus also at every office for updating information on any topic related to the problems of order in our information-flooded times.

KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION was founded in 1973 by an international group of scholars with a consulting board of editors representing the world’s regions, the special classification fields, and the subject areas involved. From 1974-1980 it was published by K.G. Saur Verlag, München. Back issues of 1978-1992 are available from ERGON-Verlag, too.

As of 1989, KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION has become the official organ of the INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION (ISKO) and is included for every ISKO-member, personal or institutional in the membership fee.

Founded under the title International Classification in 1974 by Dr. Ingetraut Dahlberg, the founding president of ISKO. Dr. Dahlberg served as the journal’s editor from 1974 to 1997, and as its publisher (Indeks Verlag of Frankfurt) from 1981 to 1997.

The contents of the journal are indexed and abstracted in Social Sciences Citation Index, Web of Science, Information Science Abstracts, INSPEC, Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA), Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (EBSCO), Library Literature and Information Science (Wilson), PASCAL, Referativnyi Zhurnal Informatika, and Sociological Abstracts.

Knowledge Organization (Subscription Print) 329,00 EUR

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Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2018/1) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/8) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/7) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/6) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/5) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/4) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/3) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2017/2) 42,00 EUR

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Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/8) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/7) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/6) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/5) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/4) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/3) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/2) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2016/1) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/8) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/7) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/6) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/5) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/4) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/3) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/2) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2015/1) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2014/6) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2014/5) 42,00 EUR

Knowledge Organization (Single Issue 2014/4) 42,00 EUR

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